27-04-2014 -  Sean Nelissen
    WDKA Design Research 2014
    As design students we are very much influenced by the school we are going to. Assignments, teachers, workshops and the overall work mentality shape our work and the designers we are becoming. Within the Design Research Assignment Digital Publishing we decided to have a closer look and research Art Schools tendencies towards digital or analogue working.By looking at different Art Schools all over the globe we discovered significant differences. For each school we analyzed the digital representation (web identity, displayed work of students, etc.) and the analogue reality.

    For the final outcome we decided to make use of the concept of the Anonymous Press, which generates booklets with images found on the web and displays them in a library inspired layout. We take on the idea that the booklet on the website displays a summary of the schools on the web, “the digital face”. By allowing print on demand, we give ourselves the opportunity to change the content of the book and print “the analogue face” of the Art Schools.

    Obviously the digital and analogue booklet will show differences, which one sees if the booklet gets printed. By showing those two layers with different content we want to show how in some cases the digital presentation and analogue reality are completely disconnected.

    To see our end result: http://anonymous-prezz.com/
    Group: Shirin, Sarah, Marielle and Sean.

24-04-2014 -  Robin Ligthart

23-04-2014 -  Rianne Kosterman


23-04-2014 -  Niermala B. Timmers

Future of the cover.

What are eBooks?
eBooks are basically almost the same as printed books, the only difference is the medium. For a traditional printed book the medium is paper. On the other hand, is an eBook a digital representation of the printed material (printed book). The medium can vary from a laptop/computer to digital eReader, PDA, smart phone, or even through a desktop printer on traditional paper. The content is usually available in PDF or HTML format, but it could also be plain texts or XML formats, which makes the content much more multidimensional and flexible than the traditional printed book. These features enable eBooks to be fully indexed.[1] This means that the content of the book can be systematic arranged. These entries are designed to enable users to locate information in a document, for example headings and subheadings or curtain keywords.[2]
The ocean flows of online information are all streaming together, and the access tools are becoming absolutely critical. If you don’t index it, it doesn’t exist. It’s out there but you can’t find it, so it might as well not be there.
Barbara Quint, Editor, Search Magazine. 1994[3]

But readers can also find these books through search engines such as Google, the library catalogue or publishers platform. This means that the primary difference between printed books and eBooks is that eBooks are exposed and visible to a larger audience. In general people have less availability to the traditional paper subscription model. Printed books can mostly be read by physically going to a library/store while through the internet, basically the whole world can have access to the content at any time of the day. [4]

Of course, there are nowadays also other possibilities of obtaining printed books online. For example, in some cases books are scanned and made ​​available by releasing them online. Google Books is an example of this. Even though the books are officially printed, they are made digitally by Google books or an external group and indexed to be used in the digital field.

Electronic books can do certain things that printed books cannot, and there in lies their value. Because of this, electronic books are changing the definition and expectations of books.[5]

Printed Books
Printed books have a material quality that electronic books have not. For many of us, the intimacy of cradling a book close to our chest, hanging our head over it and shutting out the real world is a sacred ritual. The smell and feel of paper can never be replicated by a cold hard (digital) screen. Browsing a bookstore or library and flicking through books is a social, embodied experience. Clicking on a screen is not. Even dough we might think that way sometimes with social media. Amazon.com has a complex algorithm to suggest books you may like based on previous purchases. But what if you would rather have a librarian or bookseller make suggestions based on their expertise? Or if you would like to have a conversation? Or walk out holding the book? The tactile differences between page and screen will always be an issue for those of us raised on ink and paper.[6]
But watch how a toddler tapping stubbornly at a magazine becomes annoyed that the image isn’t changing. That child is unlikely to feel the same nostalgia for print as her parents, because her understanding of “book” will be significantly different then theirs.

The technology we use to present and consume information has changed. The toddler, who understands that tapping a glassy surface should make an image change, demonstrates that technology is developing at an unprecedented rate.[7]


Because of this extremely fast developing technology the cover of the book is under attack. Critics believe that the book cover might be dead because of the way we touch digital books is different than the way we touch physical books. But if we really acknowledge that, useful conclusions can be made.[8] If a book’s cover is the first thing a potential reader sees, it can make a lasting impression. Our brains are wired to process images faster then words. A great cover can help the reader instantly recognize that this book is for him. He thinks twice before accepting or buying a book with a bad or cheap looking cover. If the cover seems to be nothing more than a catalogue photograph with block letters, people bypass it. If the author did not care enough to dedicate time to his cover, we will wonder how much time they put into the book itself.[9] But how do we approach this in the e-publishing landscape? When covers are not as important anymore. Can we reinvent the digital book cover? We jump in and out of digital texts with little to no procession. In contrast, every time you set down a physical book, the cover is staring right at you. And every time you pick it back up, you have to go ‘through’ the cover to get to the text. Do that five times and you will never forget the title or author. And as certain books become applications, their covers become icons. When you see the book online, it’s always accompanied by lots of text. You read the text on the screen, the cover is the icon. The classic notion of a cover made digital is more like a books favicon rather than a gateway into the text. The cover of a printed book is a protector of the signatures and the binding. It allows the books to fly in and out of the stacks a thousand times, and still be usable. In the digital world, our books are protected by ubiquity.Jump into the eBook and any of these chapter-opening images could be a cover. On the most base level, within the constraints of our current eBook systems, distributed the cover throughout his entire book. The reality is, entire books need to be treated as covers to treat an entire book as a cover, means to fold the typographic and design love usually reserved for covers onto everything. The lack of platforms is what makes many iPad magazine apps helpless. They end up in no better position than a printed magazine. There are no routes by which you can directly get their content. You cannot point in. You are forced to go through the ‘front door’ to get anywhere. And it’s a door usually weighing several hundred megabytes and difficult to unlock.[10]

Craig Mod disagrees with how the cover no longer serves a function to sell. Book recommendations do weigh heavenly in the book selection, however, when you look at a book at Amazon or wherever, one of the first impressions is still with the cover. Does it look professional? Does it have a personality that conveys what I want to read? The book cover is not just some technical piece of information. There is an art to the cover that leaves us with an emotional response, whether it is a good emotion or a bad emotion.[11]

There is a clear connection between great covers and great sales.
In addition to promising what a book will deliver, the cover image also promises that the author is a professional and that the book will honour the readers time.[12]
The finest books boast strong, well-written stories. But to rise to the top, to gain traction with readers, even the best book needs a dynamic cover.[13]
“I’m blown away by the great covers on books by indie authors,” says Smashwords founder Mark Coker. “The quality of cover design today is head and shoulders above what it was just a few years ago.”[14]

It is disappointing that we should answer the question what the future of the book will be electronic/digital or manual? Does it really have to be an either / or mentality?[15] In my knowledge the two should live next to each other with both different purposes and functions, both working together, complimenting each other.

[1] Wouter van der Velde, Olaf Ernst, (2009) “The future of eBooks? Will print disappear? An end-user perspective”, Library Hi Tech, Vol. 27 Iss: 4, pp. 570 – 583
[2] The American Society for Indexing, Inc. (ASI), What is Indexing?,
[3] Leverage Technologies, Inc. Professionally Created Indexes for Publications Enhance Usability
[4] Wouter van der Velde, Olaf Ernst, (2009) “The future of eBooks? Will print disappear? An end-user perspective”, Library Hi Tech, Vol. 27 Iss: 4, pp. 570 – 583
[5] What is a book in the digital age? Zoe Sadokierski, 11 November 2013.
[6] What is a book in the digital age? Zoe Sadokierski, 11 November 2013.
[7] Idem.
[8] Hack the Cover, Craig Mod, May 2012
[9] Yes, We Really Do Judge Books by Their Covers, May 29, 2013
[10] Hack the Cover, Craig Mod, May 2012
[11] Hack the Cover, Craig Mod, May 2012
[12] Yes, We Really Do Judge Books by Their Covers, May 29, 2013
[13] Idem
[14] Idem
[15] What is a book in the digital age? David Hopkins, March 3, 2014

After effects experiment whereby the program distorts the original image in a sequence.
Could possibly be the cover of the book.

One of the outcomes transformed into Bitmap to enhance the digital feeling.

What happends with gradients on eReaders.
You can play with the transition of different pages when the ink fills the screen.

Video – Gradient Test on eReader

Other experiment with different covers for the book: ‘The Little Prince’. Trying out very thin lines and thin typography to see what is possible on the eReader.



UnderCover youtube

23-04-2014 -  Jim Jansen
My and Jeroen’s research focusses on applications. We started with the following research questions:

## 1
1. How have applications created for print design changed to include digital functionality?
1. Look at earlier versions of the program, updates and new functionalities and patch updates.
_visual outcome_
1. Timeline.
## 2
2. When looking at applications updated in a similar timeframe, taking into account customer and industry demand, how do the changes made to the applications compare to each other and why?
2. Comparing the different applications and their updates through patch notes and analysing their user interface.
_visual outcome_
2. Infographic (graphs etc.).
## 3
3. Are there applications which changed drastically when their focus shifted from print to digital and in what way did they change?
3. Find 2 programs which changed in noticeably different ways. Compare patch notes and analyse user interface.
_visual outcome_
3. Infographic (graphs etc.).
## 4
4. Are there any applications created purely for digital publishing and how are they different from those created for print?
4. Research the essence of these programs and compare several of these programs to each other by testing them in hands-on capacity. Specifically by trying to come to the same outcome with several applications.
_visual outcome_
4. The outcomes of the hands-on testing.
## 5
5. How did the interfaces from applications change overtime and how did this affect the skeuomorphic qualities of the interface?
5. Go in depth on one or two applications. Take/gather screenshots from the different versions and compare them in a timeline.
_visual outcome_
5. Timeline with images/text.
In the end, we went with answering questions 1 and 5, as they’re closely related to each other and we felt they’re the most relevant questions. We were struggling a bit with what kind of visual outcome our research would have. We considered a timeline, but thought this wouldn’t yet make our idea clear enough. Or at least, maybe it would be clear enough, but not too original or inventive for research.
We also tried some other experiments, like a gif animation showcasing the skeuomorphic qualities in Photoshop. But we felt it moved to fast to show it all nicely, and doesn’t really allow any room for observation.
After all that, we were still having trouble wrapping our heads around what we were actually going to produce. We tried a physical research to see where that got us. It focussed on the splash screens of different programs throughout the years. This was a complete mess to look up and finding all images would’ve taken ages, if we hadn’t found a very nice Graphical User Interface Database, which featured extensive documentation of several important programs. Most prominently, Photoshop.


Near the very end, the idea came up to create an actual application out of it, showcasing changes in the application. We went for Photoshop only, since it’s a program that accommodates both digital and print, and has gradually evolved to become more suited for digital design. Or at least, that’s our idea. We came to create an interactive pdf, showcasing changes in the program, skeuomorphic qualities and notes.

22-04-2014 -  Yentl Kivits

Comparing applications from two different sites;
education apps

Showing the amount of different applications on one site;
one website app

22-04-2014 -  Yentl Kivits

design research A2

Design research A3

22-04-2014 -  Yentl Kivits

This is our main question:
How do you get educated on the matter of technology vs books?
Eigenlijk wordt het aan jezelf overgelaten, omdat jij als leerkracht zelf moet kijken wat jouw manier van lesgeven is. Daarnaast moet je kijken wat de stageschool hierover te zeggen heeft en wat de leerkrachten van die school doen. Je moet rekening houden met de manier waarop de stageschool lesgeeft, omdat je daar als stagiaire zijnde, je aan moet aanpassen. Wel kun je tijdens het stagelopen je beroepsidentiteit bepalen en nagaan of je het fijn vindt om digitaal les te geven.
Op onze eigen school wordt hier dan ook niet veel van meegegeven. Er wordt steeds meer vernieuwd en daar moet jij, als leerkracht, op inspelen.

Vragen over je opleiding:
Merk je veel verschil tussen het eerste jaar van je opleiding en je laatste jaar van je opleiding, dat er nu meer les word gegeven door jou docenten met digitale schermen?
Nee, ik merk hier niet zoveel verschil in op. De docenten op onze school werken sowieso veel met digiborden en PowerPointpresentaties. Wel zijn de borden die in de klas hingen op een gegeven moment vernieuwd. Dus je kunt wel zeggen dat onze school ook meegaat met de technologie van tegenwoordig.

Krijgen jullie les om kinderen te ondersteunen in het gebruik maken van digitale media?
We hebben hier wel redelijk veel les in gekregen. En dan niet zozeer in het vak ‘digitale media’, maar kregen we tips hoe we de vernieuwde technologie kunnen gebruiken bij de verschillende vakken op de basisschool. Dus welke middelen en op welke manier we deze kunnen inzetten in de lessen die we geven.

Hoe is jou visie op de toekomst, denk jij dat kinderen makkelijker leren op bijv. de ipad of een computer?
Ik denk dat dit wel voor een gedeelte klopt. Ik zie nu overal om me heen dat kinderen vaak achter de computer zitten, thuis en op school. Daarnaast krijgen scholen ook tablets die de kinderen mogen gebruiken. Ik merk dat de kinderen dit onwijs leuk vinden, ze hebben niet door dat ze aan het leren zijn. Ik denk dat ze hierdoor ook sneller dingen oppikken en daarom ook eerder kiezen voor een computer of ipad. Ze leren spelenderwijs en dat vind ik wel heel belangrijk.
Wel moet dit niet de overhand gaan krijgen, want leren uit een boek hoort er ook bij. Maar dit kan wel in combinatie met de computer of ipad.

Krijgen jullie ook les in de programma’s die beschikbaar zijn op bijv. een Ipad of een computer? Zo ja, hoe dan? En welke programma’s?
Wij hebben hier niet echt les in gekregen. Ik kan me hier in ieder geval weinig van herinneren. Wel krijgen we soms tips van leerkrachten die dan aangeven dat een bepaald programma heel leuk is voor kinderen van een bepaalde leeftijd en wat kinderen daar dan mee kunnen. In mijn eerste jaar heb ik wel programma’s moeten bekijken, maar ik heb geen idee meer welke programma’s dat waren.

Hou zou jij het liefste les geven, digitaal of nog gewoon uit een boek en waarom?
Ik zou het liefste allebei doen. Op digitaal vlak zijn er ontzettend veel programma’s die heel leuk zijn voor kinderen. Ze verzinnen er telkens wel wat bij, bij elk thema en voor elk doel. Daarnaast vinden kinderen het ook leuk om dan op het digibord mee te doen, zodat ze niet alleen maar stil hoeven te zitten. Daarnaast is uit een boek ook heel goed, omdat ze dit hun hele schoolleven nog zullen moeten. Ze moeten wel voorbereid worden op de jaren die nog gaan komen. Ook kun je bij lessen uit een boek vaak materiaal erbij halen wat de kinderen heel erg aantrekt. Het is namelijk tastbaar en dus interessant. Op de computer kunnen ze dan de gekregen informatie toepassen, spelenderwijs.

Word er bij jullie op school getest waar je beter door leert, via scherm of papier?
Nee, dit wordt niet gedaan.

Denk je dat de digitale technologie ook jou manier van lesgeven gaat veranderen en hoe dan?
Ja, ik denk zeker dat dit ook mijn manier van lesgeven gaat veranderen. Omdat dit iets wat dan schoolbreed aangepakt moet worden en waar je je als leerkracht dan aan moet aanpassen. Nu wordt niet alles digitaal gedaan, dus zal je als leerkracht je manier van lesgeven aan moeten passen.
Als alles digitaal moet worden, zullen de boeken verdwijnen en zal ik ook minder materiaal meenemen voor in de klas, omdat het dan al zichtbaar is op de digitale borden.

Vragen over je stage:
In welke groepen heb je allemaal stage gelopen? Wat voor scholen waren het, openbare scholen of christelijke of privé scholen?
In het eerste jaar heb ik op een christelijke school stage gelopen in groep 2 en groep 4-5. In het tweede jaar heb ik op een openbare school stage gelopen in groep 1-2 en groep 7. In het derde jaar heb ik op een openbare school stagegelopen in groep 1-2 en groep 7. En nu loop ik stage op een katholieke school in groep 1-2.

Merk je veel verschil tussen de kinderen, die gebruik maken van digitale schermen en de kinderen die daar niet mee in aanraking komen? Of is dat niet van toepassing bij jou?
Ik merk daar wel verschil tussen. Ik heb op een school stagegelopen waar er voor de kinderen geen computers en digiborden waren. Ik heb een onderzoekje gedaan met twee kinderen uit die klas en die wisten eigenlijk weinig van de nieuwe technologie. Je merkt gewoon dat de kinderen die op scholen wel in aanraking komen met digitale schermen hier ook beter mee omgaan. Ze weten precies hoe een tablet en digitaal scherm werkt.

Merk je aan de ouders dat het van thuis uit gestimuleerd word om steeds meer digitaal te doen?
Nee, hier merk ik niets van. Ik denk juist dat kinderen minder om moeten gaan met de digitale media, omdat ze hier op school ook al mee in aanraking komen en ze vinden dat de kinderen ook lekker buiten moeten spelen.

Hebben veel kinderen uit je stage klas een mobiele telefoon?
Ik loop nu stage in een groep 1-2 dus daar is dit niet van toepassing. Ik merkte wel dat vorig jaar in groep 7 een aantal een mobiele telefoon hadden die deze ook meenamen naar school.

Zijn er nog veel boeken visueel aanwezig in het leslokaal of printen jullie alles uit?
Er zijn methodes waar we de lessen uit halen en dus hoeven we dat niet uit te printen. Eigenlijk zijn het alleen de kleurplaten die de kinderen gebruiken, verder wordt er weinig uitgeprint waar de kinderen iets mee moeten doen.

22-04-2014 -  Yentl Kivits

21-04-2014 -  Shirin Pfisterer

In order to get a personal impression of the schools and their way of working we went to as many schools as possible and took pictures. We focused on the following to get a comparable overview.

For schools where we didn t have access (due to distance) we asked exchange students to contact their friends to do the same as we did and send us pictures. Unfortunately this did not work out as good as we planned.


# Website questionary:
1.) From which year is the site from?*
2.) Does it have JQuery?
3.) Does it have Flash?
4.) Is it responsive?
5.) Is it easy to use?
6.) Is the interface intuitive? (do you find things easily?)
7.) Do they show student’s work their main page?
8.) How many pictures of student’s works/facilities/paper/digital/exhibition are there?
9.) How many works are printed media and how many or digital publications?*
10.) How many times does the words “print”/”digital” appear?
11.) Does the website include open publication?
12.) If so the site does, are they digital files or do they send the printed version to you?
# Visit questionary:
1.) Entrance area/students work area:
- how many printers/scanners/computers/beamers are there to use?
- Do students have a working space area?
- personal desks?
- corpus (storage space)?
2.) How many flat screens are there?
3.) Is there a library?
4.) How many pinboards are there?
5.) How many students are studying there in total?
6.) Do they have an art supplies shop?
7.) In house ICT?

# Website questionary:
1.) From which year is the site from?*2.) Does it have JQuery?3.) Does it have Flash?4.) Is it responsive? 5.) Is it easy to use?6.) Is the interface intuitive? (do you find things easily?)7.) Do they show student’s work their main page?8.) How many pictures of student’s works/facilities/paper/digital/exhibition are there? 9.) How many works are printed media and how many or digital publications?*10.) How many times does the words “print”/”digital” appear?11.) Does the website include open publication?12.) If so the site does, are they digital files or do they send the printed version to you?

# Visit questionary:
1.) Entrance area/students work area:- how many printers/scanners/computers/beamers are there to use?- Do students have a working space area? - personal desks?- corpus (storage space)?
2.) How many flat screens are there?3.) Is there a library?4.) How many pinboards are there? 5.) How many students are studying there in total?6.) Do they have an art supplies shop?7.) In house ICT?